History of Brazil

Brazil was discovered by Pedro Álvares Cabral on April 22nd, 1500. However, it is controversial to say that the country was “discovered” when there were already indigenous natives living in these lands, so Brazil was colonized by the Portuguese during this period when they sighted Mount Pascoal.
It is interesting to say that Cabral’s fleet was not looking for a new land, they found the land by a maritime blunder. Until then, they were trying an alternative route to reach the East Indies, because of the spices. However, by mistaking the route, they sighted lands that would later be called Brazilian.

Colonies and Immigration
By mid-1530, the Portuguese already had colonies settled in Brazil, and, because of the Treaty of Tordesillas, an agreement between Portugal and Spain to divide the colonized lands of America, the Spanish also had some colonies in the continent.
In addition, because the country has a continental territory, other colonies were formed, such as the Dutch colonies in northeastern Brazil, which settled there by planting sugar cane.
Over the centuries, many immigrants went to Brazil with the promise of jobs and stability since the country was developing strongly. Besides the Portuguese, Spanish, and Dutch who were already there, there were also the Swiss, who arrived in the early 1820s and settled in the southeast, mainly in Rio de Janeiro. The Germans also went at the same time, but stayed in the southern part of the state, in Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul.
Other immigrants of great importance to Brazilian history are the Italians, many of whom stayed in São Paulo to work in commerce or industry, but most went to the countryside of the state to work at the coffee plantations.

With this diversity of people, Brazil has an ethnic plurality, so there is a countless variety of types that define the ethnic composition of Brazil. For example, according to IBGE data, there are about 305 indigenous people, who speak more than 270 languages. This number is added to the different ramifications of European, African, Asian, and many others who descended from the people who migrated to the country during its post-discovery historical period.
In general, we can say that the Brazilian ethnic composition is basically made up of three main ethnic groups: the Indians, the Africans, and the Europeans. The Indians are the descendants of those who lived here before the period of discovery by the Portuguese. The Africans were transported to Brazil during the slavery period, and the Europeans came through colonization.

Talking about the weather and climate in the Brazilian country, precisely because it has large territories, we have various climates in Brazil, but in general, they are hot climates with well-defined periods of humidity and drought or reduced rainfall.

• Equatorial Climate
The equatorial climate is hot and humid and occurs in the northern region of the country, with a high degree of humidity, even under the influence of continental masses, which is due to the presence of the Amazon Rainforest. With this, the rainfall averages are quite high, with the absence of drought or dry spells. The temperatures are high throughout the year with averages that vary between 25 ºC and 28 ºC.

• Semi-arid climate
The semi-arid climate occurs in part of the Northeastern region of the country with the most striking characteristics: low humidity and a long period of low or no rainfall, which can extend from June to December. Besides the scarcity, this climate type is marked by high temperatures during the year, varying between 25 ºC and 27 ºC.

• Tropical climate
The tropical climate, sometimes also called typical tropical, covers almost all regions in Brazil. It is present throughout the Midwest, in part of the Northeast, in the Southeast, in the South, in the northwestern part of Paraná, and in Roraima in the North.
It is characterized by the marked presence of two seasons. One is hot and humid, extending from December through March, while the other, winter, has milder temperatures and dry weather. Temperatures vary with minimums between 18º C and 27º C, exceeding 30ºC in the hottest months.

• High Altitude Tropical climate
The altitude tropical climate occurs in the high plateaus of the southeast region of Brazil, in the states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, and Espírito Santo. It resembles the typical tropical climate, with one hot and humid season, which is summer, and another cold and dry season, extending from March to September, approximately. However, the temperatures are milder, varying between 15 ºC and 22 ºC. During the winter, frost can occur, and in the summer, rainfall is intense.

• Subtropical Climate
The subtropical climate occurs in the lands located below the Tropic of Capricorn, which corresponds to the southern states and the southeast of São Paulo. It is the mildest climate, with temperatures that range from 18 ºC to minus during the winter. The summers, however, can register very high temperatures, with well-distributed rainfall during the year.

• Tropical Atlantic climate
The tropical Atlantic climate, also known as coastal humid, occurs on the east coast of Brazil, comprising states from the Northeast to the South of the country. This climate is characterized by high humidity and large rainfall volumes in the places where it occurs. The rainy season corresponds to the months of fall and winter, and temperatures range from mild to hot, between 18 ºC and 26 ºC.

Speaking of the Brazilian coast, Brazil has 7,491 km of coastline, which gives a total of 2,095 beaches, the best ones being found in Fernando de Noronha, an archipelago in Pernambuco, Alagoas, and Rio de Janeiro.